Flask SQLAlchemy 模型转 JSON

SQLAlchemy 模型到字典

要添加序列化方法,您的所有 SQLAlchemy 模型都继承自抽象基类。这个基类定义了to_dict遍历模型列并返回字典的方法。

from flask import json
from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy
from sqlalchemy.orm.attributes import QueryableAttribute
from wakatime_website import app

db = SQLAlchemy(app)

class BaseModel(db.Model):
    __abstract__ = True

    def to_dict(self, show=None, _hide=None, _path=None):
        """Return a dictionary representation of this model."""

        show = show or []
        _hide = _hide or []

        hidden = self._hidden_fields if hasattr(self, "_hidden_fields") else []
        default = self._default_fields if hasattr(self, "_default_fields") else []
        default.extend(['id', 'modified_at', 'created_at'])

        if not _path:
            _path = self.__tablename__.lower()

            def prepend_path(item):
                item = item.lower()
                if item.split(".", 1)[0] == _path:
                    return item
                if len(item) == 0:
                    return item
                if item[0] != ".":
                    item = ".%s" % item
                item = "%s%s" % (_path, item)
                return item

            _hide[:] = [prepend_path(x) for x in _hide]
            show[:] = [prepend_path(x) for x in show]

        columns = self.__table__.columns.keys()
        relationships = self.__mapper__.relationships.keys()
        properties = dir(self)

        ret_data = {}

        for key in columns:
            if key.startswith("_"):
                continue
            check = "%s.%s" % (_path, key)
            if check in _hide or key in hidden:
                continue
            if check in show or key in default:
                ret_data[key] = getattr(self, key)

        for key in relationships:
            if key.startswith("_"):
                continue
            check = "%s.%s" % (_path, key)
            if check in _hide or key in hidden:
                continue
            if check in show or key in default:
                _hide.append(check)
                is_list = self.__mapper__.relationships[key].uselist
                if is_list:
                    items = getattr(self, key)
                    if self.__mapper__.relationships[key].query_class is not None:
                        if hasattr(items, "all"):
                            items = items.all()
                    ret_data[key] = []
                    for item in items:
                        ret_data[key].append(
                            item.to_dict(
                                show=list(show),
                                _hide=list(_hide),
                                _path=("%s.%s" % (_path, key.lower())),
                            )
                        )
                else:
                    if (
                        self.__mapper__.relationships[key].query_class is not None
                        or self.__mapper__.relationships[key].instrument_class
                        is not None
                    ):
                        item = getattr(self, key)
                        if item is not None:
                            ret_data[key] = item.to_dict(
                                show=list(show),
                                _hide=list(_hide),
                                _path=("%s.%s" % (_path, key.lower())),
                            )
                        else:
                            ret_data[key] = None
                    else:
                        ret_data[key] = getattr(self, key)

        for key in list(set(properties) - set(columns) - set(relationships)):
            if key.startswith("_"):
                continue
            if not hasattr(self.__class__, key):
                continue
            attr = getattr(self.__class__, key)
            if not (isinstance(attr, property) or isinstance(attr, QueryableAttribute)):
                continue
            check = "%s.%s" % (_path, key)
            if check in _hide or key in hidden:
                continue
            if check in show or key in default:
                val = getattr(self, key)
                if hasattr(val, "to_dict"):
                    ret_data[key] = val.to_dict(
                        show=list(show),
                        _hide=list(_hide),
                        _path=('%s.%s' % (_path, key.lower())),
                    )
                else:
                    try:
                        ret_data[key] = json.loads(json.dumps(val))
                    except:
                        pass

        return ret_data

现在我们使用这个基类来打印 aUser作为字典。

class User(BaseModel):
    id = db.Column(UUID(), primary_key=True, default=uuid.uuid4)
    username = db.Column(db.String(), nullabe=False, unique=True)
    password = db.Column(db.String())
    email_confirmed = db.Column(db.Boolean())
    modified_at = db.Column(db.DateTime())
    created_at = db.Column(db.DateTime(), nullable=False, default=datetime.utcnow)

    _default_fields = [
        "username",
        "joined_recently",
    ]
    _hidden_fields = [
        "password",
    ]
    _readonly_fields = [
        "email_confirmed",
    ]

    @property
    def joined_recently(self):
        return self.created_at > datetime.utcnow() - timedelta(days=3)

user = User(username="zzzeek")
db.session.add(user)
db.session.commit()

print(user.to_dict())

哪个打印:

{
    'id': UUID('488345de-88a1-4c87-9304-46a1a31c9414'),
    'username': 'zzzeek',
    'joined_recently': True,
    'modified_at': None,
    'created_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 28, 56, 905379),
}

并且很容易通过以下方式进行 jsonified:

json.dumps(user.to_dict())

默认值和隐藏字段

您可能已经注意到User列出默认和隐藏字段的属性。这些允许您自定义User返回的字典中包含哪些列。例如,如果您想包含email_confirmed在您的序列化用户中,您可以:

print(user.to_dict(show=['email_confirmed', 'password']))

哪个打印:

{
    'id': UUID('488345de-88a1-4c87-9304-46a1a31c9414'),
    'username': 'zzzeek',
    'email_confirmed': None,
    'joined_recently': True,
    'modified_at': None,
    'created_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 28, 56, 905379),
}

还要注意password不包括在内,因为它被列为隐藏在User.

从字典更新 SQLAlchemy 模型

我们有一个to_dict方法,但为了支持 POST、PUT 和 PATCH 方法,我们需要一个from_dict方法,该方法接受一个字典并使用提供的数据更新模型的列。让我们像这样添加from_dict方法:

from sqlalchemy.sql.expression import not_

class BaseModel(db.Model):
    __abstract__ = True

    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        kwargs["_force"] = True
        self.from_dict(**kwargs)

    def to_dict(self, show=None, _hide=[], _path=None):
        ...

    def from_dict(self, **kwargs):
        """Update this model with a dictionary."""

        _force = kwargs.pop("_force", False)

        readonly = self._readonly_fields if hasattr(self, "_readonly_fields") else []
        if hasattr(self, "_hidden_fields"):
            readonly += self._hidden_fields

        readonly += ["id", "created_at", "modified_at"]

        columns = self.__table__.columns.keys()
        relationships = self.__mapper__.relationships.keys()
        properties = dir(self)

        changes = {}

        for key in columns:
            if key.startswith("_"):
                continue
            allowed = True if _force or key not in readonly else False
            exists = True if key in kwargs else False
            if allowed and exists:
                val = getattr(self, key)
                if val != kwargs[key]:
                    changes[key] = {"old": val, "new": kwargs[key]}
                    setattr(self, key, kwargs[key])

        for rel in relationships:
            if key.startswith("_"):
                continue
            allowed = True if _force or rel not in readonly else False
            exists = True if rel in kwargs else False
            if allowed and exists:
                is_list = self.__mapper__.relationships[rel].uselist
                if is_list:
                    valid_ids = []
                    query = getattr(self, rel)
                    cls = self.__mapper__.relationships[rel].entity.class_
                    for item in kwargs[rel]:
                        if (
                            "id" in item
                            and query.filter_by(id=item["id"]).limit(1).count() == 1
                        ):
                            obj = cls.query.filter_by(id=item["id"]).first()
                            col_changes = obj.from_dict(**item)
                            if col_changes:
                                col_changes["id"] = str(item["id"])
                                if rel in changes:
                                    changes[rel].append(col_changes)
                                else:
                                    changes.update({rel: [col_changes]})
                            valid_ids.append(str(item["id"]))
                        else:
                            col = cls()
                            col_changes = col.from_dict(**item)
                            query.append(col)
                            db.session.flush()
                            if col_changes:
                                col_changes["id"] = str(col.id)
                                if rel in changes:
                                    changes[rel].append(col_changes)
                                else:
                                    changes.update({rel: [col_changes]})
                            valid_ids.append(str(col.id))

                    # delete rows from relationship that were not in kwargs[rel]
                    for item in query.filter(not_(cls.id.in_(valid_ids))).all():
                        col_changes = {"id": str(item.id), "deleted": True}
                        if rel in changes:
                            changes[rel].append(col_changes)
                        else:
                            changes.update({rel: [col_changes]})
                        db.session.delete(item)

                else:
                    val = getattr(self, rel)
                    if self.__mapper__.relationships[rel].query_class is not None:
                        if val is not None:
                            col_changes = val.from_dict(**kwargs[rel])
                            if col_changes:
                                changes.update({rel: col_changes})
                    else:
                        if val != kwargs[rel]:
                            setattr(self, rel, kwargs[rel])
                            changes[rel] = {"old": val, "new": kwargs[rel]}

        for key in list(set(properties) - set(columns) - set(relationships)):
            if key.startswith("_"):
                continue
            allowed = True if _force or key not in readonly else False
            exists = True if key in kwargs else False
            if allowed and exists and getattr(self.__class__, key).fset is not None:
                val = getattr(self, key)
                if hasattr(val, "to_dict"):
                    val = val.to_dict()
                changes[key] = {"old": val, "new": kwargs[key]}
                setattr(self, key, kwargs[key])

        return changes

使用新from_dict方法,我们用字典更新我们的用户:

updates = {
    "username": "zoe",
    "email_confirmed": True,
}
user.from_dict(**updates)
db.session.commit()

print(user.to_dict(show=['email_confirmed']))

哪个打印:

{
    'id': UUID('488345de-88a1-4c87-9304-46a1a31c9414'),
    'username': 'zoe',
    'email_confirmed': None,
    'joined_recently': True,
    'modified_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 36, 47, 939084),
    'created_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 28, 56, 905379),
}

请注意,这email_confirmed仍然是None因为它被标记为只读。

关系

我们的to_dictfrom_dict方法也适用于人际关系。例如,当我们的User模型有很多模型时,我们可以默认Goal序列化或使用:Goalshow

class User(BaseModel):
    ...
    goals = db.relationship('Goal', backref='user', lazy='dynamic')

class Goal(BaseModel):
    id = db.Column(UUID(), primary_key=True, default=uuid.uuid4)
    title = db.Column(db.String(), nullabe=False)
    accomplished = db.Column(db.Boolean())
    created_at = db.Column(db.DateTime(), nullable=False, default=datetime.utcnow)

    _default_fields = [
        "title",
    ]

goal = Goal(title="Mountain", accomplished=True)
user.goals.append(goal)
db.session.commit()

print(user.to_dict(show=['goals', 'goals.accomplished']))

哪个打印:

{
    'id': UUID('488345de-88a1-4c87-9304-46a1a31c9414'),
    'username': 'zoe',
    'goals': [
        {
            'id': UUID('c72cfef0-0988-45e4-9f4b-8a4a7d4f8d8f'),
            'title': 'Mountain',
            'accomplished': True,
            'created_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 45, 18, 299924),
        },
    ],
    'joined_recently': True,
    'modified_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 36, 47, 939084),
    'created_at': datetime.datetime(2018, 7, 11, 6, 28, 56, 905379),
}

它甚至允许自定义关系列,例如:goals.accomplished.

原创文章,作者:admin,如若转载,请注明出处:http://seopuzi.com/flask-sqlalchemy-to-json/

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